A Practice-Grounded Approach for Evaluating Health in All Policies Initiatives in the United States
To address the social determinants of health, an increasing number of public health practitioners are implementing Health in All Policies initiatives aimed at increasing cross-sectoral collaboration and integrating health considerations into decisions made by "nonhealth" sectors. Despite the growth in practice nationally and internationally, evaluation of Health in All Policies is a relatively new field. To help inform evaluation of Health in All Policies initiatives in the United States, this study sought to develop a practice-grounded approach, including a logic model and a set of potential indicators, which could be used to describe and assess Health in All Policies activities, outputs, and outcomes.
Methods included (a) a review of the literature on current Health in All Policies approaches, practices, and evaluations; and (b) consultation with experts with substantive knowledge in implementing or evaluating Health in All Policies initiatives. Feedback from experts was obtained through individual (n = 11) and group (n = 14) consultation.
The logic model depicts a range of potential inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes of Health in All Policies initiatives; example indicators for each component of the logic model are provided. Case studies from California, Washington, and Nashville highlight emerging examples of Health in All Policies evaluation and the ways in which local context and goals inform evaluation efforts.
The tools presented in this article synthesize concepts present in the emerging literature on Health in All Policies implementation and evaluation. Practitioners and researchers can use the tools to facilitate dialogue among stakeholders, clarify assumptions, identify how they will assess progress, and implement data-driven ways to improve their Health in All Policies work.